Whether a capital project is executed through an engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC), or design-bid-build, approach, the construction phase is a critical component of project execution and ultimately overall project success.
During this project phase, the EPC contractor or construction contractor is responsible for completing all construction activities necessary to meet predetermined deadlines and goals per the scope of the project. This includes all civil, structural, piping, equipment, electrical, instrumentation, coatings, and insulation activities.
It may be more cost- and schedule-efficient for some project components to be prefabricated or pre-assembled off-site in a fabrication shop, while for others, it may be best to perform on-site construction. It can be advantageous if the contractor has in-house fabrication capabilities, as there is better communication of priorities, changes, and progress. Regardless of whether off-site or on-site construction is utilized, contractors work to ensure all construction activities are performed safely and accurately.
Below, we provide a comprehensive list of common project deliverables in construction.
Common Project Deliverables in Construction
Every capital project is unique, and deliverables may vary depending on client/project owner requirements and other project characteristics and constraints. However, for industries such as energy, chemicals, and terminal and logistics, project deliverables in construction are fairly standardized.
Standard Project Deliverables in Construction
- Project Schedule (LEVEL 3): Level 3 project schedules contain the entirety of the project scope and are derived from key project execution stakeholder information.
- Project Controls: Capital project controls are the processes that include all resources, procedures, and tools required to plan, monitor, and control each phase of capital project life cycles. This process involves estimations, risk management, schedule and cost management, change management, forecasting, and earned value progressing.
- Engineering Oversight: Engineering oversight refers to the engagement of the engineering team throughout project execution. This includes answering any technical questions as well as providing support for Requests for Information (RFIs).
- Construction Management: Construction management simply refers to the contractor's role in providing the project owner with effective management of the project’s schedule, cost, quality, scope, and safety.
- Subcontract Management: If some portions of construction activities are subcontracted out, the primary contractor is responsible for subcontractor management—the process of procuring subcontractors and overseeing their work on behalf of the client/project owner.
- Behavior-Based Safety Program: Behavior-based safety programs are designed to influence employee actions towards safer outcomes by preventing accidents and injuries before they occur. The name of such programs will likely vary from contractor to contractor, but all have the same overarching purposes. It is important to have buy-in at all levels of an organization, from on-site employees to management. These programs allow this by communicating the importance of safety and the ability of each employee to improve through positive reinforcement and feedback without placing blame.
- Job Safety Analysis (JSA): A job safety analysis is a safety tool that can be used on-site to define and control hazards associated with a particular process or job. It provides workers with a systematic method to examine and document every task within a given job to identify health and safety hazards as well as the steps to control each task. It helps construction personnel identify the safest possible way to perform a job.
- Toolbox Talks: Toolbox talks are a simple way for construction personnel, foremen, and supervisors to supplement OSHA training throughout their organization and ensure safety is prioritized among all employees. These short, typically pre-written, safety meetings help increase employee awareness surrounding workplace hazards and OSHA regulations.
Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC)
- Weld Log: Whether in the form of a paper sheet or spreadsheet, weld logs are utilized to keep track of various data points on each weld. They may include aspects such as welding codes, welding processes, joint type, size/diameter, thickness, fit, non-destructive evaluation (NDE) requirements and dates performed, weld completion, and initials of welders and inspectors involved.
- Non-Destructive Testing (NDT): NDT is the process of inspecting, testing, and evaluating materials, components, and assemblies for any differences in characteristics (discontinuities) without destroying the serviceability of the part at hand.
- Discipline Check Sheets: Discipline check sheets provide a standard format to document and sign off different steps in construction. From civil pre-pour cards to piping pressure tests, these check sheets ensure Quality Assurance and Quality Control takes place during construction.
- Tagged Equipment: Tagged items refer to all equipment, specialty items, and major electrical and instrumentation items. These items are tagged primarily for identification purposes and to track it from engineering and design to procurement to installation. For example, a pump is tagged on a piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) to show where it is in the process. A datasheet will provide the detailed requirements of the pump, allowing procurement to purchase and track the pump with the tag number and construction to install the item using an equipment location plan showing the tagged item.
- Bulk Materials: Bulk materials are non-tagged materials that can be ordered by weight, volume, or in lots. This includes materials such as pipe, steel, concrete, wire, cable, etc.
- Pipe Spooling: A pipe spool refers to a section of a piping system that is prefabricated as smaller segments with fittings, flanges, elbows, tees, etc.
- Pipe Fabrication and Testing: Testing of fabricated pipes may include hydrostatic testing, magnetic particle inspection, Charpy impact testing, and ultrasonic testing.
- Vessel Fabrication - ASME U Stamp: The ASME U Stamp indicates that the pressure vessel adheres to all ASME guidelines surrounding design, fabrication, inspection, and testing. It is utilized for the certification and acceptance of pressure vessels.
- System-Based Execution and Completion: System-based execution refers to completing the work by system as opposed to by area. All projects start with area execution, and at approximately 75-80% construction completion, the approach shifts to a system-based completion (e.g. completing the nitrogen system, the fuel gas system, etc.).
*Note: Standard project deliverables in construction may vary depending on client requirements, provided items, project drivers, characteristics, and risk.
H+M: We Build, Your Advantage
As a leading Texas-based industrial construction company, H+M Industrial EPC works to ensure your construction project remains on schedule and budget while meeting your goals and vision. Our highly experienced team incorporates proven work processes with advanced planning methods and scheduling software to ensure successful completion.