Industrial Safety | Capital Project Word of the Week - November 2020
5/15/2021
Word of the Week
published by
Jay Bice, SMS, CHST
Director of Health, Safety & Environmental

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Capital Project Word of the Week - Safety

Thank you for visiting our Capital Project Word of the Week website feature. Our theme this month is Safety. We hope this provides you with some meaningful information about our industry and the services we provide. Each week we will be adding a new Word of the Week to the page. Come back frequently to see our new additions!

Week of November 30, 2020

Job Safety Analysis (JSA)

[ job ] [ seyf-tee ] [ uh-nal-uh-sis ]

A Job Safety Analysis (JSA) is a multistep process used to identify and mitigate the specific hazards associated with each step of a project. All employees performing the job should participate in the development of the JSA.  Once the specific steps have been determined, the associated hazards will be decided and recorded.  Employees will then determine how they will prevent, eliminate, or control the hazards.  An example of ways to mitigate the hazards might be a specific procedure, tools, permits, PPE, etc.  Once the JSA has been completed, the project Supervisor and employees involved in the creation of the JSA should review and approve before beginning work. This link is a useful reference for learning more about the Job Safety Analysis Process. Below is a real life example of a Job Safety Analysis.

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Week of November 23, 2020

Behavior-Based Safety (BBS)

[ bih-heyv-yer ] [ beys-d ] [ seyf-tee ]

Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) is a process that uses the science of behavior change to create a safe workplace. The involvement of management, alongside the entire organization, is mandatory to identify and positively intervene when people are engaging in at-risk behaviors while performing a task - these are called observations.  Observations should be performed at all levels of an organization.  An essential part of a BBS program is communication. This is mainly accomplished by providing feedback to the employee performing the observed task. This creates a dialog to give praise and understanding for performing safe behaviors, as well as creating a proactive discussion for at-risk behaviors.  

The information gathered during an organization’s BBS program is then processed and analyzed to create action items and documentation tools to share with all employees. A BBS program can be accomplished in a variety of ways, but must adapt to an organization’s culture and needs in order to be successful over the long term. This article provides more detailed information on Behavior-Based Safety.

Below is a real life example of a way to identify and track observations during a Behavior-Based Safety process, the H+M TIP Behavior Observation Form.

Week of November 16, 2020

Process Safety Management (PSM)

[ pros-es ] [ seyf-tee ] [ man-ij-muhnt ]

Process Safety Management (PSM) is the OSHA Regulation 29 CFR 1910.119 created in 1992 that legally requires companies to comply with the 14 elements of managing the hazards associated with Highly Hazardous Chemicals. The creation of PSM was in response to a number of catastrophic chemical disasters across the globe and has 14 elements that should be used as a blueprint for managing these hazards. These elements include:

  • Compliance Audits
  • Training
  • Contractors
  • Hot Work
  • Process Safety Information
  • Process Hazard Analysis
  • Mechanical Integrity
  • Operating Procedures
  • Incident Investigation
  • Management of Change
  • Employee Participation
  • Trade Secrets
  • Pre-startup Safety Review
  • Emergency Planning and Response

This blueprint is necessary to create a comprehensive PSM program. A PSM program’s goal is to protect and prevent catastrophic incidents that could harm employees and the surrounding communities, as well as clarify the responsibilities of owner facilities and contractors when performing work in or near these hazardous processes.  It is imperative that all organizations that work around Highly Hazardous Chemicals ensure they develop these procedures and processes alongside training their workers in the elements of PSM. Visit this LINK for more information on Process Safety Management (PSM).

Week of November 9, 2020

Experience Modification Rate (EMR)

[ ik-speer-ee-uhns ] [ mod-uh-fi-key-shuhn ] [ reyt ]

Experience Modification Rate (EMR) is a number generated by a worker’s compensation rating organization such as the National Council on Compensation Insurance (NCCI). EMR is used by insurance companies to determine the past cost of injuries and future risks in order to establish insurance premiums for an organization. A lower EMR correlates to fewer worker injuries and less risk, resulting in lower premiums. How is the EMR calculated? – Click here for a more detailed explanation.  

The EMR number is another lagging indicator routinely used to evaluate a company’s overall safety performance. Companies with a higher EMR (usually above 1.0) tend to have more severe or more frequent workplace injuries than those with an EMR below 1.0. As we previously mentioned with TRIR, EMR should also be paired with leading indicators when evaluating the effectiveness of an organization’s HSE program.

Week of November 2, 2020

Total Recordable Incident Rate (TRIR)

[ toht-l ] [ ri-kawrd-able ] [ in-si-duhnt ] [ reyt ]

Total Recordable Incident Rate (TRIR) is a standardized calculation created by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) which is frequently used as one of the key metrics to compare company safety performance within a particular industry or group. TRIR does not factor a company’s size, industry, level of risk associated with the work they perform, or level of severity of the Recordable Incident.  A recordable is a work-related injury or illness that requires medical treatment beyond first aid, visit the following link for more information on how OSHA defines a recordable.  

TRIR = # Recordable Incidents X 200,000 / Total Hours Worked

OSHA Incident Rate Calculator

TRIR is a lagging indicator as it tracks events that have already occurred, thus it should paired with leading indicators when evaluating the effectiveness of an organization’s HSE program.  For more information on the TRIR metric, please visit the following link.

About the Author
Jay has 25+ years of combined experience in oil & gas, petrochemical manufacturing, pipeline and construction safety, and holds two certifications (SMS, CHST) from the Board of Certified Safety Professionals. Jay has been a member of the American Society of Safety Professionals since 2008 and sits on the Board of Directors for the Economic Alliance Houston Port Region. He specializes in process safety, risk management, behavior-based safety, construction safety, and incident case management. He has been a Keynote Speaker for multiple conferences, including EHS Today’s Safety Leadership Conference, where H+M was named one of America’s Safest Companies in 2017. Previous experience includes work at Brown & Root, DuPont LaPorte, Buckeye Pipeline, Veolia Environmental, Solvay Battleground, BP, and INEOS.
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